Prawo karne i postępowanie karne

Kto pyta, nie błądzi – jak poprawnie formułować pytania do biegłych z zakresu rekonstrukcji wypadków

Korzystając z doświadczenia i mądrości nasz przodków, zacytuję polskie przysłowie „Kto pyta, nie błądzi”. Jest to kwestia o tyle ważna, że jeśli nie zadamy pytania w odpowiedni sposób lub sformułujemy je niefortunnie – po prostu nie uzyskamy na nie odpowiedzi, a tego akurat chcielibyśmy uniknąć.

Bardzo często zdarza się, że przy wypadach drogowych organ procesowy zleca sporządzenie opinii przez biegłego, ponieważ stwierdzenie okoliczności o istotnym znaczeniu dla sprawy wymaga wiadomości specjalnych, których nie posiada sąd, prokurator czy policja.

Formułując pytania do biegłego, powinniśmy dogłębnie zapoznać się z zawartością akt sprawy oraz spróbować „obrazowo” odtworzyć przebieg zdarzeń. Dodatkowo przyda się również podstawowa wiedza kryminalistyki, medycyny oraz znajomość prawa o ruchu drogowym.

W pierwszej kolejności należy podkreślić, że biegły wydając opinię nie posiada kompetencji rozstrzygających, zatem to prokurator czy sąd dokonują oceny czy np. kierowca naruszył konkretny przepis. Biegły w tej kwestii powinien jedynie wypowiedzieć się, że „kierujący dokonał szeregu nieprawidłowych manewrów [wymienia jakie], co w taki a taki sposób wpłynęło na powstanie wypadku komunikacyjnego. Pamiętaj, że biegły nie może wypowiadać się również co do winy związanej z odpowiedzialnością karną. Dlatego nieprawidłowym jest zadanie pytań typu:

  • Co było przyczyną wypadku?
  • Czy uczestnicy naruszyli zasady bezpieczeństwa, jeśli tak to jakie?

Klasycznym przykładem nieprawidłowego pytania jest „czy obrażenia ciała wyczerpują znamiona przestępstwa z art. 177 § 1 k.k.? Na tak zadane pytanie, biegły nie chcąc przekroczyć swoich uprawnień powinien wypowiedzieć się, że „Nie wiem, czy wyczerpują znamiona przestępstwa z art. 177 § 1 k.k., ale naruszają funkcjonowanie organizmu na czas powyżej 7 dni”.

W tym kontekście należy mieć na uwadze, że zadawane pytania biegłym mogą wykraczać poza ich specjalność. Pytanie czy ślady krwi (tkanek, włosów) ujawnione na pojeździe pochodzą od poszkodowanego powinno być skierowanego do biegłego z zakresu biologii, a nie do biegłego z zakresu mechanoskopii, chyba że sporządzono opinie kompleksową.

Pytania powinny być jasne i jednoznacznego, im bardziej szczegółowe tym lepiej. O to przykłady poprawnie zadanych pytań:

  • Czy istnieje związek przyczynowy pomiędzy stanem nietrzeźwości kierowcy a spowodowanym wypadkiem?
  • Czy kierowca mógł uniknąć wypadku?
  • Jakiego rodzaju opony (tzw. Letnie czy tzw. Zimowe) w czasie zdarzenia były zamontowane w samochodzie, którym poruszał się kierowca? Na moim istagramie @legalnafura wyjaśniłem czy dozwolona jest jazda na tzw. Letnich oponach w zimę oraz jakie mogą wyniknąć z tego konsekwencji.
  • Czy samochód, którym w czasie zdarzenia poruszał się kierowca, był wyposażony w system zapobiegania blokowaniu się kół w czasie hamowania (ABS)?

Są to jedynie przykłady pytań, tak naprawdę nie ma żadnych ograniczeń w zadawaniu pytań (oprócz powyższych, które przedstawiłem w skrócie), a precyzyjne zadawanie pytań pozwoli uzyskać takich odpowiedzi, których oczekujemy by padły podczas procesu.

W sprawach o przestępstwa i wykroczenia drogowe czasem decydujące znaczenie ma mały szczegół. Sztuką jest dostrzeżenie go i wykorzystanie w odpowiedni szczegół.
LegalnaFura jest wspierana przez Tomczak Legal Mateusz Tomczak. Jeśli potrzebujesz pomocy, koniecznie skontaktuj się biuro@tomczaklegal.pl

Jeśli zainteresowała Cię tematyka przestępstw oraz wykroczeń drogowych koniecznie odwiedzaj strone legalnafura.pl oraz na Instagramie LegalnaFura

Literatura:

  1. J. Jerzewska „od oględzin do opinii biegłego. Poradnik dla prowadzących postepowanie karne”, Warszawa 2010
  2. M. Olężałek, Metodyka pracy adwokata i radcy prawnego w sprawach przestępstw oraz wykroczeń drogowych, Warszawa 2020
  3. W. Kotowski, Formułowanie pytań do biegło, Palestra 2010, nr 1-2

48 komentarzy

  • Ablissabof

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  • Ablissabof

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  • Ablissabof

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  • Ablissabof

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  • Ablissabof

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    Napoleon Bonaparte could relate.
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  • Ablissabof

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    Another success aphorism comes from Chris Grosser.
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    There must be a method to your madness.
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    Do you believe that a penny saved is a penny earned.
    This quote originated from Thomas Howell in New Sonnets and Pretty Pamphlets.

  • Ablissabof

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    Napoleon Bonaparte could relate.
    Sometimes, though.
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    There must be a method to your madness.
    An aphorism is a literary device that uses a short, clever saying to express a general truth.
    Examples of Aphorism in Literature
    Examples of Aphorisms for Success
    He knows that Luke should either decide that he can do it or decide to quit.
    Have you ever felt frustrated when other people didn’t meet your expectations.
    Shifting gears a little, let’s talk about one of the world’s greatest aphorists – Benjamin Franklin.
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  • Ablissabof

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  • Ablissabof

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    It’s one of my favorite aphorisms because it’s simple but yet powerful.
    Picture of Benjamin Franklin and a caption that says „Aphorist Extraordinaire”
    Finally, Actions speak louder than words is another classic example.
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  • Ablissabof

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    Aphorisms state universal truths about life that encourage reflection.
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    Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.
    The original dictum said, A penny spar’d is twice got, but it’s adapted over the years for modern English.
    See for yourself.
    Honesty is the best policy.
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    You’re prepared to use these handy little sayings to make your prose more relatable.
    Don’t judge a book by its cover.
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  • Ablissabof

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    Let me ask you.
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    But there’s no certain magic to sprinkling aphorisms into your writing.
    An aphorism is a literary device that uses a short, clever saying to express a general truth.
    And since they’re universal truths about life, they help persuade your reader to accept your message.
    This quote originated from Thomas Howell in New Sonnets and Pretty Pamphlets.
    It’s one of the most recognized aphoristic statements today.
    Life is too short to surround yourself with toxic people.
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  • Ablissabof

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    Other Common Examples of Aphorisms
    Today, calling someone a Jack of all trades is usually a jab because it implies that their knowledge is superficial.
    Ready to Use These Aphorism Examples In Your Writing.
    That’s why aphorisms, adages, and proverbs are synonyms for each other.
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    The original dictum said, A penny spar’d is twice got, but it’s adapted over the years for modern English.

  • Ablissabof

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    Interestingly enough, this saying was initially intended as a compliment.
    The original saying was, Eat an apple on going to bed, and you’ll keep the doctor from earning his bread.
    Ready to Use These Aphorism Examples In Your Writing.
    Too many times to count, right.
    If you do, you agree with George Herbert’s famous aphorism from his book, Outlandish Proverbs.
    Better safe than sorry is a piece of wisdom from Samuel Lover’s book, Rory O’More.
    If you can do something, then you need to do it for the good of others.
    Picture of Benjamin Franklin and a caption that says „Aphorist Extraordinaire”
    That’s not what you expected, was it.
    Not so much.
    And then.
    What is an Aphorism.
    Brevity is the key.
    It originally read, Count not they chickens that unhatched be…

  • Ablissabof

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    (I say these words to make me glad),
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    It’s better safe than sorry, right.
    Michael Corleone from The Godfather II disagreed with that.
    Washington also said, It is better to offer no excuse than a bad one.
    Interestingly enough, this saying was initially intended as a compliment.
    But these days.
    Your stories can benefit from this method too.
    The term aphorism originates from late Latin aphorismus and Greek aphorismos.
    If you do, you agree with George Herbert’s famous aphorism from his book, Outlandish Proverbs.
    This famous motto highlights the truism that life is full of ups and downs.

  • Alexisreile

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    Another example comes from Spider-Man, where Uncle Ben turns to Peter Parker and says, With great power comes great responsibility.
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    He once stated, If you want a thing done well, do it yourself.
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    Aphoristic statements also appear in everyday life, such as daily speeches made by politicians and leaders.
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  • Alexisreile

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    The original saying was, Eat an apple on going to bed, and you’ll keep the doctor from earning his bread.
    Give it a try!
    But one key difference is that for a phrase to be truly aphoristic, it needs to be a short statement.
    Now that we’ve covered the aphorism definition, are you ready for more examples.
    Another success aphorism comes from Chris Grosser.
    It’s become one of the most viral memes on the internet.
    Sandys said, Honestie the best policie, which in modern English is…
    Finally, Actions speak louder than words is another classic example.
    Skilled writers use aphorisms to evoke big ideas in a relatable way.
    Aphoristic statements also appear in everyday life, such as daily speeches made by politicians and leaders.
    An aphorism is a literary device that uses a short, clever saying to express a general truth.

  • Alexisreile

    But, the aphorism is short and sweet.
    Examples of Aphorisms for Success
    It’s one of my favorite aphorisms because it’s simple but yet powerful.
    Let me ask you.
    Sometimes, though.
    search bar with „what use aphorism.” written
    There must be a method to your madness.
    Truthfully, there aren’t huge differences between the three.
    Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.
    Better safe than sorry is a piece of wisdom from Samuel Lover’s book, Rory O’More.
    Thomas Jefferson also mirrored this general idea when he said, I find that the harder I work, the more luck I seem to have.
    Life is too short to surround yourself with toxic people.
    He once stated, If you want a thing done well, do it yourself.
    But these days.
    You’re prepared to use these handy little sayings to make your prose more relatable.
    Don’t judge a book by its cover.

  • Alexisreile

    See the difference.
    Nanakorobi yaoki.
    What am I referring to.
    Aphorism Examples in Everyday Speech
    It’s easier to do it yourself rather than try to explain it to someone else.
    Finally, All things come to those who wait is a good aphorism we’re all familiar with.
    You’re prepared to use these handy little sayings to make your prose more relatable.
    Curiosity killed the cat.
    Proverbs, on the other hand, can be much longer than aphorisms and adages.
    Another success aphorism comes from Chris Grosser.
    Thomas Jefferson also mirrored this general idea when he said, I find that the harder I work, the more luck I seem to have.
    Washington also said, It is better to offer no excuse than a bad one.
    He’s earned that title because he’s authored dozens of aphorisms.
    Finally, All things come to those who wait is a good aphorism we’re all familiar with.
    And then.
    The term aphorism originates from late Latin aphorismus and Greek aphorismos.

  • Alexisreile

    We see this in literature all the time.
    Examples of Aphorisms for Success
    Remember that.
    Aphorism Examples in Everyday Speech
    Finally, Actions speak louder than words is another classic example.
    Not so much.
    Your stories can benefit from this method too.
    An aphorism is a literary device that uses a short, clever saying to express a general truth.
    Take this proverb, for example.
    The meaning.
    It’s one of the most recognized aphoristic statements today.
    Have you ever felt frustrated when other people didn’t meet your expectations.
    Shifting gears a little, let’s talk about one of the world’s greatest aphorists – Benjamin Franklin.
    But these days.
    Not only that, but you can use aphorisms in your writing to summarize your central theme.
    Today, I’ll define aphorism and show you how these handy little sayings make your writing more memorable.

  • Alexisreile

    It’s a great saying, but it’s not something you’d necessarily repeat over the dinner table.
    It originally read, Count not they chickens that unhatched be…
    Check it out.
    This aphorism is short and sweet, but it teaches us a valuable truth.
    Want a few more.
    Now you might be asking.
    Your stories can benefit from this method too.
    Too many times to count, right.
    Now compare that proverb to this famous aphorism.
    The original dictum said, A penny spar’d is twice got, but it’s adapted over the years for modern English.
    It’s one of the most recognized aphoristic statements today.
    Aphorism Examples in Everyday Speech
    He once stated, If you want a thing done well, do it yourself.
    Skilled writers use aphorisms to evoke big ideas in a relatable way.
    Ready to Use These Aphorism Examples In Your Writing.
    The term aphorism originates from late Latin aphorismus and Greek aphorismos.

  • Alexisreile

    Brevity is the key.
    You get up and keep trying.
    Check it out.
    Like George Washington, Sandys believed that telling the truth is always the way to go.
    Sometimes, though.
    (I say these words to make me glad),
    Their direct, witty approach is what makes these self-evident truths powerful.
    Truthfully, there aren’t huge differences between the three.
    And since they’re universal truths about life, they help persuade your reader to accept your message.
    Speaking of being safe, that’s another aphorism example that you’ve probably heard before.
    It’s one of my favorite aphorisms because it’s simple but yet powerful.
    Sandys said, Honestie the best policie, which in modern English is…
    Shifting gears a little, let’s talk about one of the world’s greatest aphorists – Benjamin Franklin.
    Not good.
    Not only that, but you can use aphorisms in your writing to summarize your central theme.
    But one key difference is that for a phrase to be truly aphoristic, it needs to be a short statement.

  • Twicsy

    When I originally commented I clicked the „Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now
    each time a comment is added I get several emails with the same comment.
    Is there any way you can remove people from that service?
    Appreciate it!

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